|Anthem||Arise Oh Compatriots, Nigeria’s Call Obey
Watch on youtube (with lyrics)
|Government||Presidential Federal republic|
|Area||923,768 km2, 356,667 sq mi|
|Population||~ 155 million|
|Currency||Naira (₦) (NGN)|
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is located in West Africa and shares land borders with the Republic of Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north. Its coast in the south lies on the Gulf of Guinea on the Atlantic Ocean.
Abuja is the capital city of Nigeria. It is located in the centre of Nigeria in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT). Nigeria has six cities with populations of over 1 million people: Lagos (7,937,932), Kano (3,848,885), Ibadan (3,078,400), Kaduna (1,652,844), Port Harcourt (1,320,214), Benin City (1,051,600), Maiduguri (1,044,497) and Zaria (1,018,827). Lagos is the largest city in sub-Saharan Africa, with a population of over 10 million in itsurban area alone.
SOCIETY AND CULTURE
Due to a high number of ethnic groups in the country, Nigeria has a very diverse culture. Nigeria is famous for its English language literature and its popular music. Since the 1990s the Nigerian movie industry, sometimes called “Nollywood” has emerged as a fast-growing cultural force all over the continent. All over the country, and even increasingly in the conservative north, western music, dresses and movies are ever popular.
Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa. The United Nations estimates that the population in 2009 was at 154,729,000, distributed as 51.7% rural and 48.3% urban, and with a population density of 167.5 people per square kilometer. Nigeria has been undergoing explosive population growth and one of the highest growth and fertility rates in the world. Nigeria has more than 250 ethnic groups, with varying languages and customs, creating a country of rich ethnic diversity. The largest ethnic groups are the Fulani/Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo, accounting for 68% of the population, while the Edo, Ijaw, Kanuri, Ibibio, Ebira Nupe and Tiv comprise 27%. There are many small minorities, for example of British, American, East Indian and Chinese origin.
The number of languages currently estimated in Nigeria is 521. This number includes 510 living languages, two second languages without native speakers and nine extinct languages. In some areas of Nigeria, ethnic groups speak more than one language. The official language of Nigeria is English. It was chosen to facilitate the cultural and linguistic unity of the country. Still, English remains an exclusive preserve of a small minority of the country’s urban elite, and it is not spoken at all in some rural areas.
Nigeria is home to a variety of religions which tend to vary regionally. This situation has often been seen as a source of sectarian conflict amongst the population. The largest religions of Nigeria are Islam and Christianity, including many followers of indigenous religions. Based on a 2003 survey, 50.5% were Muslim, 48.2% were Christian (15% Protestant, 13.7% Catholic, and 19.6% other Christian), and followers of other religions were 1.4%. The core north is largely Muslim while southern regions are predominantlyChristian. Other minority religious and spiritual groups in Nigeria include Hinduism, Judaism, The Bahá’í Faith, and Chrislam.
GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS
Nigeria is a federal constitutional republic comprising thirty-six states and its Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. The Republic is modelled after the United States, with executive power exercised by the president and with overtones of the Westminster System model in the composition and management of the upper and lower houses of the bicameral legislature. The current president of Nigeria is Goodluck Jonathan. The president presides as both Head of State and head of the national executive and is elected by popular vote. The president’s power is checked by a Senate and a House of Representatives, which are combined in a bicameral body called the National Assembly. The country has a judicial branch, the highest court of which is the Supreme Court of Nigeria.
The economy of Nigeria is one of the fastest growing in the world and the third largest economy in Africa. It is classified as an emerging market, and has already reached middle income status according to the Worldbank, with its abundant supply of natural resources, well-developed financial, legal, communications, transport sectors and stock exchange. Nigeria is the United States’ largest trading partner in sub-Saharan Africa and supplies a fifth of its oil. Nigeria also has a wide array of underexploited mineral resources. It also has a manufacturing industry which includes leather and textiles, car manufacturing, t-shirts, plastics and processed food.